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Re: Литература на ламповые темы
« Ответ #30 : 18 Апреля 2011, 20:42:20 »
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tim,
Практическая схемотехника. Источники питания и стабилизаторы. Книга 2

Там  совсем другое издание.

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Re: Литература на ламповые темы
« Ответ #31 : 20 Апреля 2011, 18:34:25 »
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tim,
Практическая схемотехника. Источники питания и стабилизаторы. Книга 2

Там  совсем другое издание.



Каюсь, грешен.

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Re: Литература на ламповые темы
« Ответ #32 : 20 Мая 2011, 23:12:45 »
0
Знаменитая статья O. H. Schade 1938-го года: http://www.clarisonus.com/Archives/TubeTheory/Schade%201938%20Beam%20Power%20Tubes.pdf


Кстати, статья замечательная тем, как виновник изгаляется, пытаясь доказать, что 6L6 -- лампа в принципе хорошая, если её правильно использовать. А правильно согласно статье - это с локальной обратной связью вокруг неё. Иначе - фиг в сумочку. :cr:


А вот - текст другой статьи, из журнала. Жаль, картинок нет. О том, во что вылилась авантюра RCA.  :laugh:



6L6 FOREVER

By Eric Barbour

(Note: This article does not include the full text, photos and graphics of
the original one published in VTV Issue #4.)

If you ever fnd yourself being harassed by a techie who insists upon
criticizing you for your interest in vacuum tubes, there is an easy answer.
He can be silenced with a simple question. Ask him if any early type
integrated circuits will still be manufactured and used in new products in,
say, the year 2030. If he's honest, the answer will be "no". Then tell him
that the frst-ever beam power tube is still selling in the millions today,
and shows no sign of becoming obsolete.....after 60 years. That should get
rid of him.

As of March 1996, the mighty 6L6 is celebrating its 60th birthday. It's
still being manufactured in Russia and China. And its popularity in guitar
amps is assured for the conceivable future. Various "experts" in the
mainstream electronics industry, who relentlessly kill old technologies and
curse people who use them, can do nothing about the 6L6 *p; it continues to
be a dominant voicemaker of rock'n'roll guitar.

Many "experts" have tried to simulate the 6L6 guitar amp with various
semiconductor-laden gizmos, from complex analog computers to DSP chips.
With varying technical success, and with little or no fnancial success.
There are numerous companies making 6L6 amps today; companies such as
Fender, Mesa-Boogie, Ampeg, Peavey, Kendrick, Victoria, Soldano, THD, Louis
Electric and many others have staked some of their product lines on the
6L6. So don't accept the mutterings about "dead technology".

1. HISTORY
In 1931, the audio outputs of radio sets were dominated by triodes such as
the UX-171 and UX-245. But even though push-pull 245s could produce 5 watts
easily, there was ongoing pressure from manufacturers for
ever-more-effcient output tubes. The pentode was the answer at frst. It
originated in Europe, with the frst American power types being the Champion
P-704 and Arcturus PZ. These were very early types and had some reliability
problems. They were quickly superceded by RCA's UX-247, released June 1931.
Suddenly you could get 2.5 watts out of a single tube, with easy drive
requirements and at only 250 volts! Millions of radios used the '47, and
its descendant, the 42 with its 6.3 volt heater, was even more popular. The
38, 48, 59, 2A5, and 6F6 followed, as did European types such as the Mazda
AC/Pen, Cossor MP/Pen, Osram MPT4, Mullard PenA4 and numerous others.

But RCA engineers were pursuing more lofty goals: low distortion with high
effciency. They were developing special power tetrodes, such as the 46
(intended for Class B push-pull and giving 20 watts from a pair) and the
smaller battery-set types 49 and 52. Late 1932 saw the 48, which (unlike
the 46) was intended to have its screen grid connected only as a screen
grid, not in parallel with the control grid as in the 46. A similar
development in Britain was the Hivac "Harries". But the 48 was the ultimate
father of the 6L6, and all that came after.

This is a good place to describe the technical basics. In a triode (Fig. 1)
electrons are boiled off the cathode or flament by heat. The electrons are
attracted strongly to the positively-charged plate. But to get to it, they
must pass through the control grid in their path. By varying the voltage on
the grid, the electron stream is varied. Simple enough.

Unfortunately, there are three problems here. First, The maximum current
that can flow at low plate voltages is limited, and this limits the maximum
power output. Second, in order to get a high maximum plate current, the
"mu" (voltage gain) needs to be low, requiring a high grid drive voltage.
The third problem is the capacitance between the plate and grid is magnifed
by the gain from the grid to the plate. This is the "Miller Effect", and it
makes triodes harder to use at high frequencies. So triodes have limits on
their frequency response and effciency, when used as power amplifers.
In the 1930s the problems were diffcult to get around; triodes with low
capacitance were eventually designed. But at the time, effciency was best
improved by adding another grid (Fig. 2). This was called a "screen" grid,
because it acted as an electrostatic screen between the grid and plate,
reducing the plate-grid capacitance. This opened up the short-wave bands,
because the screen allowed greater frequency response. It also increased
gain, as the fxed voltage on the screen made the plate current less
dependent on the variations of plate voltage. The resulting "tetrode"
became a standard for RF amplifers in radios, and the RCA 48 was about as
good as a tetrode could be made for audio.
But when used for amplifying audio, tetrodes have a problem. The secondary
emission can be attracted to the screen grid, which lowers the plate
current for low plate voltages. This is the famous "tetrode kink" (Fig. 3).
It is a source of distortion in audio, and represents some wasted energy as
well. Because of this, a third grid was added between the screen and plate
(Fig. 4). The "suppressor" grid is widely spaced and is at the same voltage
as the cathode. Thus, secondary electrons which bounce off the plate will
be repelled away from the screen and back to the plate. The kink
disappears, and we have a "pentode". Gain and effciency are very high,
frequency response is excellent, distortion is lowered.

Even so, the RCA engineers knew that the pentode has problems. One obvious
one is that the screen and control grids are wound with different wire
spacing. So, some electrons will pass through the spaces in the control
grid, only to strike (or be defected in a useless direction by) a
screen-grid wire directly in that space. That electron is wasted energy,
and does not reach the load. The electrons that strike the screen just heat
it up. A similar interaction can happen with the screen and suppressor, but
mostly involving the secondary electrons. And some electrons can pass
through gaps at the top and bottom of the grid assembly, or strike the
siderods of the grids. So the main electron beam can have a circuitous
route. Most of the wasted energy heats the screen grid, which in an extreme
case can make them emit electrons, causing the tube's plate current to run
away.

In England, studies on secondary emissions showed that by spacing the plate
a critical distance from the screen grid in a tetrode, a "virtual
suppressor" is formed. (see side-bar) 1. Schade and his fellow RCA
engineers took this concept and perfected its implementation in several
ways. First, they wound the control grid and the screen grid with the same
spacing. The wires were aligned, so very few electrons would strike the
screen. Second, the suppressor grid was replaced with a pair of "beam
plates" on either side of the grid structure. This assured that the only
electrons reaching the plate were in the area where the critical plate
distance was right, insuring the "virtual suppressor" was effective. The
result was extremely high effciency, high linearity and lowered grid
heating. The frst production version of this was encased in a metal
envelope with a then-new octal base. (Fig. 5) Thus was born the 6L6.

It was an immediate hit. All the major radio manufacturers started using it
in their audio output stages, essentially eliminating the triodes, such as
the '45 and 2A3, and elbowing out old tetrodes like the 46 and 48, and
pentodes like the '47 and 6F6. And new applications appeared; ham-radio
operators found that it could give usable power in a transmitter, even at
shortwave frequencies, and at far lower cost than previous tubes or the
official transmitting version of the 6L6, the 807. The cost of public
address amplifers was affected by the new tube, as it was now practical to
get 25 watts without using four 2A3s or expensive larger triodes like the
50 or 300B. Only two 6L6s were now needed, at a fraction of the cost.

2. TYPES
The 6L6 gave birth to a vast array of beam tubes (Figure 6). The 6V6, 25L6,
and others were immediate developments, which gave lower power for small
radios at lower cost. The 807 was the beginning of a series of beam tubes
intended for radio transmitters, some of which are usable beyond 500 MHz.
The 807 was the direct ancestor of the famous 6146 transmitting tube. The
major VHF push-pull tetrodes of World War II, the 815 and 829 were based on
the 6L6. The 6550 was a high-power audio tube based on classic beam tetrode
principles. The first American television horizontal amplifier or "sweep"
tube, the 6BG6G, came out in 1946., and was a repackaged 6L6. It was
followed by dozens of derivatives ending up in the monster color TV sweep
tubes of the 1970s, such as the 6LQ6 and 6KG6/EL509.

To this day, new tubes are being developed that are descended from the 6L6.
The KT90, KT99 and KT100 are examples. These recent audio tubes are derived
from TV sweep tubes.

The original metal 6L6 was a typical design for RCA at the time.
Metal-shell tubes were a passing fad of the 1930s, marketed to people who
were afraid to replace their own radio tubes because of the danger of
injuring their hands on broken glass. The steel envelope was more expensive
to manufacture and had real problems dissipating heat, so the fad was
virtually over by 1940. The metal 6L6 and its premium version, 1614, were
often used in early jukebox amps and in many Zenith radio chassis, not to
mention PA amps.

A few maniacal radio hams found that a metal 6L6 could be operated in a
bath of transformer oil, allowing it to dissipate 150 watts for short
periods. The glass 6L6G, appearing in 1937, proved more popular with the
conservative audio industry. It was common in nearly all WWII jukeboxes,
and became nearly universal in PA amps right through the 1940s. Although
the G version had the same ratings as the metal style, it took over the
market.

During World War II, improvements were made in the glass envelopes, and
after the war, the 6L6GA was introduced. It had the smaller ST-14
"coke-bottle" envelope. In the early 1950s, the 6L6GB came out, having a
straight-sided S-12 envelope. These all had the same maximum ratings as the
original 6L6G.

After the war, an escalation in power ratings began. This had been
prefgured in the 1938 introduction in Britain of MOV's KT66, a more
powerful version of the 6L6. OEMs wanted more and more power, without
resorting to transmitting tubes. In 1947, Mullard introduced the EL37. It
and the KT66 were more expensive in America than the 6L6s, so the
RCA/GE/Sylvania business continued as more and more dissipation was
demanded from the tubes. The result was a group of "supertubes", which
became standard for high-power American guitar amps and some hi-f amps. In
1954, a combination of better materials and a different maximum rating
system allowed the 6L6GC to raise the plate dissipation from 19 to 30
watts. In 1955, the 6550 was introduced. In 1958, the 7027 came out. In the
early 1960s, the 8417 was developed.

The 5881, introduced by Tung-Sol, was intended as a smaller 6L6 version for
use in military and industrial equipment. Millions of 5881s were plugged
into servo amplifers in aircraft such as the B-52 bomber, so this must be a
rugged and reliable tube. It was standard equipment in some home hi-f
amplifers, such as the classic Heathkit W-3 and W-4 series, Fisher 70A,
Pilot AA-410 and many others. Fender's Bassman was equipped with 5881s, and
this guitar amp (like many later models) is very demanding of its power
tubes. 6L6Gs simply can not be used in such amps!

The 5932 was Sylvania's rugged 6L6 type. It was never used in audio
equipment and is extremely scarce. See below for more information on the 3
variations on this tube. General Electric tried to make a super-6L6 in the
mid-50s, and the result was the 7581. You can easily recognize a real GE
7581 by its pinkish fesh-colored base, which is virtually unique. It was
the standard tube in the classic Harman- Kardon Citation 5 amplifer, but
was rarely used otherwise due to its high cost. Tube manuals sometimes give
the 7581 as an exact replacement for the KT66, although it is mechanically
quite different. Still, it has become a valuable tube due to its ability to
tolerate the high voltages in post-1958 6L6 guitar amps.

TABLE 1: ESCALATION OF 6L6 RATINGS OVER THE YEARS
DISSIPATION MAX PLATE V MAX SCREEN V
6L6/G/GA/GB 19 W 360 V 270 V
KT66 (1940s-on) 25 W 500 V 400 V
EL37 (1947) 25 W 800 V 800 V
5932 (1950) 21 W 400 V 300 V
5881 (1950) 23 W 360 V 270 V
6L6GC (1954) 30 W 500 V 450 V
7027 (1958?) 35W 600V 500 V
7581 (1956) 30 W 500 V 450 V
7581A (1960) 35 W 500 V 450 V

All of these were pluggable into any 6L6 socket, and biased very similarly.
All used 0.9 amps at 6.3 volts on the flament, except the KT66 which used
1.25 amps and the EL37 which used 1.4 amps.
There were so many variations of this form that we can't get space to list
them in this magazine. I could go into the 6AR6, or the Bendix Red Bank
6384 (covered in a separate article), or variations with different flament
voltages like the lower-power 25L6. There are numerous variations of the
6V6, there are Western Electric types like the 350B, there are numerous
transmitting types, there are hundreds of sweep tubes. There are miniatures
like the 6AQ5 and 7189. There are the late-50s audio types like 7591, 7868,
7355. Those will have to wait for future articles.

As I said, the major applications of these tubes were in PA amplifers and
radio outputs, jukeboxes, and some early hi-f amps. But the future and
longevity of the 6L6 were assured when Leo Fender put them in his large
guitar amps, starting with the Dual Professional in 1947. Fender's large
amps of the late 1950s, including the Showman, Bassman, Pro, and Twin
models, became the essence of American rock. Indeed, the 1959 Bassman and
1960 Twin are among the most copied electronic gadgets in history, with a
variety of new "boutique" manufacturers producing their own versions. If
you include the 6V6-powered Deluxe models in that short list, then the old
Fender designs are the undisputed standards.

In 1972, the late Tom Ruberto of Sylvania developed a special version of
their standard 6L6GC, for Fender. This type had extra mica spacers and was
designed to hang upside-down, as well as being designed to tolerate 500
volts on the plate and screen. This was the frst STR (special test
requirement) 6L6. It became a standard, so much so that "STR", long after
the 1988 shutdown of the Sylvania tube factory, is a standard term used to
describe 6L6GCs with this large cylindrical envelope. GE even introduced
their own version, and both had numerous guitar amps designed around them.
I once repaired a guitar amp made by Acoustic, circa 1979. It had four
6L6GC-STRs, and put 750 volts on them. The owners of this model don't
realize that they have a dangerous beast there. Unfortunately, many such
amps continue to be used, although the STR tubes are no longer being made
and are getting expensive.

Because of the chaos of 6L6 types and the often-brutal conditions they
endure in music amps, testing becomes even more important. The problem with
some types is usually their design limitations, not design faws. Older
tubes often had surface treatments on their mica insulators which reduced
manufacturing costs, while allowing some leakage current to reach their
control grids. Such tubes are limited in plate-voltage capability. And
supertubes like the KT66 usually have gold-plated grids to prevent grid
emission, which can also destroy the tube. Since I have tried out many
tubes for this magazine (primarily with an eye toward high-fdelity use),
it's worth looking at the 6L6 types closely to also determine what
vintage-guitar-amp users need.

3. TESTS
As with previous tube tests in past issues of VTV, I used a special single-
ended test amp to examine the distortion characteristics of a large cross-
section of old 6L6 types, as well as a few current-production items. The
driver was a 6EM7 and the output load was a One Electron UBT-1 with the
8-ohm test load connected to the 4-ohm tap, thus presenting 3200 ohms to
the tube's plate. This test has been most revealing in the past, and the
6L6s were even more unexpected in their behavior. As in the past,
distortion is almost all second-harmonic and was measured at 1 watt into an
8-ohm load. Each tube was biased to 50 milliamps, a typical value for 6L6s,
then tested. All the types were run at 300 volts triode connection, then
types that were rated to accept 500 volts on plate were run again at 500v,
with 300 volts on the screen.

These lists only show types for which I was able to obtain multiple
samples. The 5932s came in 3 styles, I tested one of each and combined
them; they weren't much different electrically. Only one WE 350B was
tested; it warmed up very slowly but gave excellent results.

6L6 TYPES WITH MULTIPLE SAMPLES:
1. Triode 300v average distortion
1614 metal RCA .61% 4 samples
6L6 metal RCA .62 4
KT66 MOV .63 4
6P3S Russian .64 12
6L6GC Sylvania short .72 4
EL37 Mullard .78 4
5881 Sovtek Russia .85 4
6L6G RCA .85 3
5932 Syl JAN .91 2
6L6GC China .93 2
6L6WGB Philips short .93 8
6L6WGB GE Canada .96 9
7027A RCA .97 4
5881/6L6WGB TungSol .98 18
7581A Philips 1985 1.06 2
7581A GE pink base 1.06 2
6L6GC GE short 1.18 3

2. Pentode 500v (screen 300v) average distortion
KT66 MOV .88% 4 samples
EL37 Mullard .91 4
6L6GC Sylvania short .95 3
5881 Sovtek 1989 .97 4
6L6WGB GE Canada 1.07 6
5881/6L6WGB TungSol 1.08 17
6L6GC China 1.08 2
6L6WGB Phil/Syl short 1.12 10
7027A RCA 1.14 4
6L6GC Sylvania STR 1.16 2
5932 Syl JAN 1.16 2
7581A GE pink base 1.19 2
7581A Philips 1985 1.22 2
6L6GC GE short 1.25 2

Many tubes that appear on the 300v list are not on the 500v list. This is
because those particular tubes are NOT rated by their manufacturers for
operation at 500 volts on the plate. This includes the metal 6L6s and
1614s, the 6L6G, GA, GB, and the Russian 6P3S, which is often sold as a
6L6GC even though it is not intended for more than 400v on the plate. (A
true GC should be rated for 500v.) We respect the intentions of the
original manufacturers. So, too, should users stick to the published
ratings. I have tried to put 500v on the older types and on 6P3Ss, and they
usually start to creak (and, sometimes, try to self-destruct due to grid
emission or leakage currents). So I defnitely do not recommend these types
for guitar amps, which often have plate voltages of 450v or more.
The peak-power tests are not listed here, but we will summarize: it was
revealed that the MOV KT66, Mullard EL37, Sylvania GC and the rare 350B (a
Western Electric type) are superior to other 6L6 types in peak output. If
the application demands maximum peak output (and money is no object), these
tubes are best. Be prepared to pay more than $150 for each KT66, EL37 or
350B. NOS usually brings such prices, but good used tubes are acceptable.
Make sure your NOS dealer warranties that the used tube is healthy!

In using this list, keep in mind that the needs of hi-f and guitar
amplifcation do not necessarily match. It is typical for hi-f users to
prefer tubes from the top of the list; the KT66 and EL37 are especially
sought- after, and the list refects this. On the other hand, for guitar the
tubes preferred are usually the short GE 6L6GC, the "STR" 6L6GCs made by
Sylvania and GE, and the various 5881s, 6L6WGBs, 7581As and 7027As. In this
case, distortion is OK (and sometimes deliberately sought by the user) but
physical ruggedness is more critical. This is why the metal types and the
old 6L6G, GA, and GB are less sought-after. The latter are in demand, but
mostly by radio collectors and juke-box owners who want to use original
tubes. For applications like these, where the plate voltage is below 350
volts, the current Russian 6P3S works just fne and is outrageously
inexpensive.

Metal 6L6s (including the 1614) are low in distortion, but tend to be
microphonic and have dissipation problems. A power tube with a metal
envelope really should be cooled by forced air or attached to a heat-sink,
neither of which is practical in typical audio amps. The more extreme
collectors of McIntosh hi-f equipment usually insist that their MC-30s be
equipped with 1614s, the original equipment in these amps.

For true obscurity, the Sylvania 5932 is worth looking at. It is a special
super-rugged 6L6 replacement for military equipment. It came in three
versions; two had a conventional single structure. The other version is
unique-it has a pair of smaller oval structures connected in parallel.
There is an underground following in the guitar world for the 2-plate 5932,
and the prices charged for it refect the demand (high). Its distortion and
power output were only average, similar to Tung-Sol 5881s.

All of the tubes listed here are pin-compatible replacements for any 6L6
type, except the 7027 and 7027A. Sockets must be rewired to use them in
place of 6L6s. A good tube-amp technician can do this at a reasonable
price. Because of the manic market for NOS types that can substitute for
6L6s, 7027s have become very scarce. There were few things that used them
as original equipment. They are very tough and are popular in Fender amps
that have been rewired appropriately. Purists tend to scoff, as 7027s are
quite different from 6L6GCs and the like; but they do work fne with just a
socket rewiring and rebiasing.

The 6L6 is not often seen in high-end hi-f amplifers. There are some old
amps out there, however, and they can be kept going with the Russian 5881.
It is unpopular in guitar amps, even though it's rugged and inexpensive.
Guitarists tend to dislike Russian 6P3Ss and 5881s because they sound
"bland". A shame, they're good hi-f tubes but rarely used for that. The
Golden Tube Audio SE-40 single-ended amp and various VTL push-pull
amplifiers are among the few contemporary high-end amps that use the
Russian 5881.

I conducted casual listening tests at the VTV offce; they tended to back up
the distortion tests above. The old 6L6GCs tended toward a warm, "romantic"
sound with greater "darkness" and much more distorted, fat bass. The metal
types and Russian 5881s were more "dry" and clean, as were 6L6Gs and
Sylvania GCs. The 6P3S has a slightly wetter sound than the Russian 5881,
but the same kind of clarity. Old 5881s were mostly made by Tung-Sol, and
sounded warm, slightly nasal, with good bass. The KT66s and EL37s were
outstanding hi-f tubes, more like triodes in character and very detailed.

Two examples of the "skinny" Shuguang 6L6GC are listed here. These look
remarkably like the Russian 6P3S, but are slightly different. The Chinese
version has four square holes in its top mica spacer, rather than the two
in the Russian tube's spacer. The Chinese ones also look less well-made and
use the same ugly brown refractory cement (to hold bases on) that is seen
in other Chinese octal tubes. These, like the 6P3S, are not really 6L6GCs
and should not be used at more than 400v. During test at 500v pentode, they
creaked and groaned alarmingly. Note that their distortion was much higher
than in the Russian ones. Obviously these tubes were made with Russian
tooling, but are much poorer quality. There is a new "Coke-bottle" shaped
6L6 from Shuguang, with a brown base and optional blue glass; it is too new
to appear here and will be reported on later.
All of the NOS tubes are out of production, leaving only the Russian 6P3S,
5881, and the Chinese types. The Russian tubes are old Soviet commercial
and military types, not originally intended for export. Svetlana is going
to introduce a new 5881 of its own soon, and we will report on it in a
future issue of VTV.

4. OUTRO
It is estimated that more than 2 million tube guitar amps exist in the
world today. Of that number, probably more than 40% use push-pull 6L6s. To
claim that this market will soon dry up and be replaced by transistors is
simply prevaricative. Although no 6L6 type is being produced in America or
Europe at the present time, there are a few popular ones from Russia and
China which own the market. The Shuguang types, including a new 6L6GC with
a blue glass envelope, are consistent sellers; and although they are very
clean-sounding tubes, the Russian-made 5881s are Soldano's favorites and
are used widely. They will likely be available for years, if not decades,
to come. Add in the soon-to-come Svetlana 5881 and a rumored 6L6GC-"STR"
which may be produced in California soon, and the 6L6 looks good for
another 60 years.

Side-Bar:
The British Connection
In England in 1931, J.H. Owens Harries discovered that if the electron flow
in a tetrode was confined to beams, and that the distance from screen grid
to plate was keptat a critical distance, secondary emission from the plate
would be supressed, just as in a pentode1,3. This discovery enabled the
British General Electric Co. (GEC, unrelated to the American General
Electric) to bring out a sensitive, high-power output tube without
infringing on the pentode patents held by Philips and Mullard. GEC then
came out with a series of beam tetrodes, with their most famous being the
KT66. KT stood for "Kinkless Tetrode" *p; since it eliminated the kink in
the transfer curve that happened with regular tetrodes. The KT66 was meant
to be a plug-in replacement for the 6L6, but had superior characteristics.
It was introduced in 1937.

Due to: the headstart the British had in developing component-type high
fidelity systems, the transfer of British RADAR technology to American
during WW II, and the common language, Americans in the late 1940s looked
to England for ideas in hi-fi design. Williamson's seminal Wireless World
articles gave British hi-fi a tremendous boost in America. The marketing
efforts of the British Industries Corp (B.I.C.) brought the best of British
hi-fi components to America during the 1950s. The net result of this was
the inclusion of "foreign" tubes, such as the KT66, KT88, EL34, GZ-34, etc.
into American hi-fi and even guitar amp designs.

Footnotes:
1 *p; Harries, Secondary Electron Radiation, Electronics, Sept. 1944.
2 *p; Schade, O.H., Proc. of the IRE, Feb. 1938.
3 *p; Harries, British patents 380,429 and 385,968, 1931. and Wireless
Eng., vol. 13, pp. 190-199, April 1936.


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Re: Литература на ламповые темы
« Ответ #33 : 28 Мая 2011, 11:10:34 »
0
Ссылка на общеизвестный полный оригинал статьи.

 6L6 FOREVER
 Eric Barbour

https://puck.nether.net/pipermail/boatanchors/1997-September/000678.html


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Re: Литература на ламповые темы
« Ответ #34 : 28 Мая 2011, 12:09:33 »
0
Прочитал статью , перевел Гугл переводчиком
Не убирайте статью , интересная.
Пишут о 150 Вт анодных 6L6 (в масленном охлаждении)
Но какая же все таки из клонов 6L6 лучше ? (офтопик)


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Re: Литература на ламповые темы
« Ответ #35 : 28 Мая 2011, 22:10:44 »
0
Ссылка на общеизвестный полный оригинал статьи.

 6L6 FOREVER
 Eric Barbour

https://puck.nether.net/pipermail/boatanchors/1997-September/000678.html

Тоже покоцанный скан, и тоже без картинок. Можно попытаться из двух сканов скомбинировать более полный. И даже перевести на русский. ;)

Но какая же все таки из клонов 6L6 лучше ? (офтопик)

Все - кривые. ;)


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Re: Литература на ламповые темы
« Ответ #36 : 28 Мая 2011, 23:58:51 »
0
Тему почистил, к некоторым камрадам, вновь прибывшим, хамство всегда остается хамством, даже если нет риска ответить за него, пальцем показывать не буду, давайте таки по человечески, у нас принято и будет именно так

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Re: Литература на ламповые темы
« Ответ #37 : 01 Июня 2011, 18:29:12 »
0
6L6 Forever 1936-96
Скан оригинала статьи
(Извините, но у Вас нет доступа в Галерею)
« Последнее редактирование: 01 Июня 2011, 20:48:25 от kotofey »

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Re: Литература на ламповые темы
« Ответ #38 : 01 Июня 2011, 18:44:56 »
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нет доступа :wall:

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Re: Литература на ламповые темы
« Ответ #39 : 01 Июня 2011, 20:11:33 »
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Не открыт еще админом...

и добавил...
Скан статьи в альбоме
http://www.diyaudio.ru/forum/index.php?action=media;sa=album;in=52

и добавил...
Или здесь:
(Извините, но у Вас нет доступа в Галерею)
« Последнее редактирование: 01 Июня 2011, 20:54:16 от tubeaudio »

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Re: Литература на ламповые темы
« Ответ #40 : 02 Июня 2011, 04:10:15 »
0
Ещё одна интересная статья, "Breaking Sound Barriers". http://www.hilberink.nl/tannoy/tsupertweeter.pdf
Статья на английском, но для тех, кто английского не читает -- она о том, что форма звуковых волн для верности воспроизведения важнее, чем набор гармоник, составляющих звуковой сигнал. Название перевидится, как "Ломая Звуковые Барьеры".




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Re: Литература на ламповые темы
« Ответ #41 : 28 Ноября 2011, 13:10:25 »
0
Настоятельно рекомендую эту книгу коллегам желающим приобщиться к изготовлению ламповых усилителей  :v:

[ Вложение: Вам нельзя просматривать вложения ]

Цитировать (выделенное)
В предлагаемой книге рассматриваются особенности конструкции современных высококачественных ламповых усилителей низкой частоты. В первой главе дан краткий обзор истории изобретения и развития электровакуумных приборов. В разделах второй главы приводится информация о принципах действия и особенностях функционирования электронных ламп, основные определения и термины, конструктивные особенности, отечественная и европейская системы обозначений. Рассмотрению основных схемотехнических решений, применяемых при создании любительской и промышленной низкочастотной усилительной аппаратуры, посвящена третья глава. В четвертой главе рассматриваются практические конструкции ламповых усилителей мощности, предварительных усилителей, блоков эффектов для электромузыкальных инструментов, а также дополнительных узлов и каскадов. В приложении приводятся сведения о взаимозаменяемости некоторых отечественных и зарубежных приемно-усилительных ламп. Книга предназначена для радиолюбителей и профессионалов, занимающихся вопросами разработки, создания и эксплуатации высококачественных ламповых усилителей низкой частоты, имеющих высокую выходную мощность. Без сомнения, она привлечет внимание и музыкантов, интересующихся особенностями современной звуковоспроизводящей аппаратуры.

Название: Секреты ламповых усилителей низкой частоты
Автор: Адаменко М. В.
Издательство: НТ Пресс
Год: 2007
Страниц: 384
Формат: программа для djvu
Размер: 6,15 МБ
ISBN: 978-5477-00155-2
Качество: Отличное
Серия или Выпуск: В помощь радиолюбителю


 (Извините, но у Вас нет доступа в Галерею)

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Re: Литература на ламповые темы
« Ответ #42 : 21 Января 2012, 21:26:56 »
0
.....это правда не лит-ра....схемы усилителей с японского сайта (от "Гегена")

   http://www.simpletube.com/databank/circuit_map.htm

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Re: Литература на ламповые темы
« Ответ #43 : 15 Июля 2012, 22:20:40 »
0
(Извините, но у Вас нет доступа в Галерею)

(Извините, но у Вас нет доступа в Галерею)

Оффлайн Charm

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Re: Литература на ламповые темы
« Ответ #44 : 15 Июля 2012, 22:45:48 »
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У кого есть 4я книга Моргана Джонса как на картинке ?

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Re: Литература на ламповые темы
« Ответ #45 : 15 Июля 2012, 23:30:54 »
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Светлана, а третье не пойдёт?

 (Извините, но у Вас нет доступа в Галерею)

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Re: Литература на ламповые темы
« Ответ #46 : 16 Июля 2012, 05:56:10 »
0
Сергей нужна 4го издания книга или копии нескольких страниц из нее. Второе и третье издание у меня есть.
« Последнее редактирование: 16 Июля 2012, 05:59:20 от Charm »

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Re: Литература на ламповые темы
« Ответ #47 : 17 Июля 2012, 00:14:31 »
0
С четвёртым у него пока проблемы с издательством.

Странички можно распечатать отсюда: http://books.google.com/books?id=Z1bSQ8YE_K8C


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Re: Литература на ламповые темы
« Ответ #48 : 17 Июля 2012, 06:30:29 »
0
Странички можно распечатать отсюда: http://books.google.com/books?id=Z1bSQ8YE_K8C

Там ограниченный просмотр, и те странички что нужны отсутствуют.

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Re: Литература на ламповые темы
« Ответ #49 : 04 Октября 2012, 13:22:00 »
0
Там ограниченный просмотр, и те странички что нужны отсутствуют.


   Спасибо большое, Светлана,  за ссылочку на эту чудесную книгу, я заказал на е-Вае http://www.ebay.com/itm/Valve-Amplifiers-by-Morgan-Jones-/261065508600?pt=Non_Fiction&hash=item3cc8b786f8  и вот уже она пришла по почте. Так что если еще актуально, могу скопировать ( с согласия автора   :cr: ) нужные странички, пишите на майл.

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Re: Литература на ламповые темы
« Ответ #50 : 23 Марта 2013, 19:21:23 »
0
Добрый день! Захотел углубиться в теорию. Никак не получается скачать книгу---- Основы теории усилительных схем - А. А. Ризкин 1957. Если у кого есть- просьба выложить в обмен.
Спасибо!

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Re: Литература на ламповые темы
« Ответ #51 : 23 Марта 2013, 21:21:39 »
0
http://www.next-tube.com/ru/remember.php?sub_menu_item=1
В конце страницы.
Основы теории и расчета электронных усилителей,
А.А.Ризкин, 1965.
Там же где то посередине есть
Проектирование и расчет ламповых усилителей низкой частоты,
под ред. А.А.Ризкина, 1968.

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Re: Литература на ламповые темы
« Ответ #52 : 23 Марта 2013, 21:45:46 »
0
 :yah:

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Re: Литература на ламповые темы
« Ответ #53 : 19 Июля 2013, 10:31:18 »
0
а есть у кого-нибудь книга Клауса-Петера Хоффмана "Ламповый HI-FI усилитель"? ISBN 3-7905-0691-5 1994 - 95 года издания

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Re: Литература на ламповые темы
« Ответ #54 : 19 Июля 2013, 23:04:12 »
0
das, Сергей! "Искусство ламповой схемотехники" Гаврилова моя настоль... виртуальная книга, просто класс, я его пока только и понимаю, может просто других не читал...

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Re: Литература на ламповые темы
« Ответ #55 : 20 Июля 2013, 04:44:30 »
0
Когда-то была моей настольной книгой:  http://www.radioscanner.ru/files/download/file5374/kacnelson_b_v__larionov_a_s__otechestvennye_priemno-usilitel.djvu

Зачитал до дыр.  :cr:


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Re: Литература на ламповые темы
« Ответ #56 : 20 Июля 2013, 19:49:22 »
0
Анатолий спасибо, замечательный справочник :v:, скачал

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Re: Литература на ламповые темы
« Ответ #57 : 29 Августа 2013, 10:52:35 »
0
Старая добрая книжка 1959 года, в которой есть кое-что интересное по выходным транформаторам, каракасам и т.п - замечательная вещь  для самодельщика. Скачать можно здесь в дежавю.  http://www.radiolibrary.ru/library/mrb/mrb-0336.html

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Re: Литература на ламповые темы
« Ответ #58 : 29 Августа 2013, 11:15:46 »
0
общался со "своими немцами", оказывается книга даже у них редкость  :(    попробуют взять в университетской библиотеке, если она там есть, и отсканировать или сфотографировать

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Re: Литература на ламповые темы
« Ответ #59 : 04 Сентября 2013, 00:51:52 »
0
я заказал на е-Вае http://www.ebay.com/itm/Valve-Amplifiers-by-Morgan-Jones-/261065508600?pt=Non_Fiction&hash=item3cc8b786f8  и вот уже она пришла по почте. Так что если еще актуально, могу скопировать ( с согласия автора   :cr: ) нужные странички, пишите на майл.
Кому нужна, пишите свой мейл в личку, вышлю эл. вариант. Есть и в оригинале и переведённый вариант.  :v:
На английском есть и книга этого автора "Строим ламповые усилители", которая по содержанию несколько отличается от "Ламповые усилители".
ИМХО, это наверное лучшие книги для "ламповых" самодельщиков, найти бы переведённые варианты в бумаге, купил бы с удовольствием.
p/s: Весь пакет около 30мБ, так что...
« Последнее редактирование: 04 Сентября 2013, 01:00:03 от U.L.F. »

 

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